In addition, preliminary findings suggest that the known association between FOC and preferences for CS [ 11 , 12 ] may be culture-bound [ 5 , 13 ]. The current study Though there are similarities between Norway and Israel similar CS rates, midwives as main birth attendants, low home birth rates they clearly have different birth cultures and normative expectations regarding motherhood, which might have implications for birth preferences and FOC. Women were asked how likely they were to choose or how much they would prefer to have a CS and to use EA during labor and delivery. Because of the adverse effect CS could have on future reproduction and birth, women who wish to have more children would rather avoid a CS [ 44 ]. The scale had been previously translated from the English version forward and back translation and validated in Norwegian [ 37 ] and in Hebrew [ 22 ]. Published online Sep 5. The health and care of pregnant women and babies in Europe in Participants The study sample included Norwegian and Israeli pregnant women. The global numbers and costs of additionally needed and unnecessary caesarean sections performed per year: overuse as a barrier to universal coverage.
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