They are some of the smallest viruses, consisting of a to nm non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA genome, with an icosahedral symmetry. These surrogates tend to not adsorb as strongly as pathogenic viruses because they generally have lower isoelectric points; they are also easy to measure and can be seeded into the environment Bales et al. In general, the adsorption process does not inactivate viruses; and adsorption is a reversible process Carlson et al. Enteric viruses cannot multiply in the environment; however, they can survive for extended periods of time i. Temperature also affects the removal of particles, including viruses. Sapoviruses have been detected in environmental waters, and raw and treated wastewaters in Japan Hansman et al. The authors observed a 5 log reduction of coxsackievirus and poliovirus in a natural lake after 9 and 21 days, respectively. Several studies have reported an inherent resistance in some individuals to infection with noroviruses.
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